Health Benefits of Choline
- May help memory problems associated with aging
- Prenatal use may lead to lifelong improvement of visuospatial memory in children born of the pregnancy
- Supplementation during infancy and childhood may lead to improved lifelong memory
- May reduce fatigue and increase vigor during strenuous exercise
- May help reduce levels of plasma homocysteine
- May promote healthy liver function
May help memory problems associated with aging
Buchman, A.L., Sohel, M., Brown, M., Jenden, D.J., Ahn, C., Roch, M., Brawley, T.L. 2001. Verbal and visual memory improve after choline supplementation in long-term total parenteral nutrition: a pilot study. J. Parent. Ent. Nutr. 25(1):30-35.
Cohen, B.M., Renshaw, P.F., Stoll, A.L., Wurtman, R.J., Yurgelun-Todd, D., Babb, S.M. 1995. Decreased brain choline uptake in older adults: An in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study. JAMA 274(11):2902-907.
Wurtman, R.J. 1988. Effects of Dietary Amino Acids, Carbohydrates, and Choline on Neurotransmitter Synthesis. The Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine. 55(1):75-86.
Zeisel, S.H. 1997. Choline: essential for brain development and function (Chapter 8). In: Barness, L.A., Oski, F.A., Rudolph, A.M., Kaback, M.M., DeVivo, D.D. (Eds.). Advances in Pediatrics: Volume 44. Year Book Medical Pub./Mosby; Chicago. pp. 263-295.
May help reduce levels of plasma homocysteine
daCosta, K.A., Gaffney, C.E., Fischer, L.M., Zeisel, S.H. 2005. Choline deficiency in mice and humans is associated with increased plasma homocysteine concentration after a methionine load. Am J. Clin Nutr. 81(2):440-444.
Verhoef, P., de Groot, L.C. 2005. Dietary determinants of plasma homocysteine concentrations. Seminars in Vascular Medicine 5(2):110-123.
McKully, K.S. 1998. Homocysteine and vascular disease: The role of folate, choline, and lipoproteins in homocysteine metabolism (Chapter 12). In: Zeisel, S.H.; Szuhaj, B.F. (Eds.). Choline, Phospholipids, Health, and Disease. AOCS Press; Champaign, Ill., pp. 117-130.
May promote healthy liver function
Buchman, A.L., Ament, M.E., Sohel, M., Dubin, M., Jenden, D.J., Roch, M., Pownall, H., Farley, W., Awal, M., Ahn, C. 2001. Choline deficiency causes reversible hepatic abnormalities in patients receiving parenteral nutrition: proof of a human choline requirement: a placebo-controlled trial. J. Parent. Ent. Nutr. 25(5):260-268.
Ghoshal, A.K., Farber, E. 1993. Choline deficiency, lipotrope deficiency and the development of liver disease including liver cancer: a new perspective. Laboratory Investigation: A Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology 68(3):255-260.
Tayek, J.A., Bistrian, B., Sheard, N.F., Zeisel, S.H., Blackburn, G.L. 1990. Abnormal liver function in malnourished patients receiving total parenteral nutrition: a prospective randomized study. J. Am. Coll. Nutr. 9(1):76-83.
Prenatal use may lead to lifelong improvement of visuospatial memory in children born of the pregnancy
Li, Q., Guo-Ross, S., Lewis, D.V., Turner, D., White, A.M., Wilson, W.A., Swartzwelder, H.S. 2004. Dietary prenatal choline supplementation alters postnatal hippocampal structure and function. J Neurophysiol. 91:1545-1555.
Meck, W.H., Smith, R.A., Williams, C.L. 1989. Organizational changes in cholinergic activity and enhanced visuospatial memory as a function of choline administered prenatally or postnatally or both. Behav. Neurosci 103:1234–41.
Meck, W.H., Williams, C.L. 2003. Metabolic imprinting of choline by its availability during gestation: implications for memory and attentional processing across the lifespan. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 27:385–99.
Zeisel, S.H. 2006. Fetal origins of memory: The role of dietary choline in optimal brain development. J. Pediatr. 149:S131-136.
Supplementation during infancy and childhood may lead to improved lifelong memory
Meck, W.H., Smith, R.A., Williams, C.L. 1988. Pre- and postnatal choline supplementation produces long-term facilitation of spatial memory. Dev. Psychobiol. 21: 339–53.
Meck, W.H., Smith, R.A., Williams, C.L. 1989. Organizational changes in cholinergic activity and enhanced visuospatial memory as a function of choline administered prenatally or postnatally or both. Behav Neurosci 103:1234–41.
Zeisel, S.H. 1998. “Choline and phosphatidylcholine are important components of an infant’s diet.” In Huang, Y-S and Sinclair, S.J. (Eds.). Lipids in Infant Nutrition. Champaign, IL: AOCS Press. pp 192-212
May reduce fatigue and increase vigor during strenuous exercise
Buchman A.L., Jenden, D., Roch M. 1999. Plasma free, phospholipid-bound and urinary free choline all decrease during a marathon run and may be associated with impaired performance. J. Am. Coll. Nutr. 18(6):598-601.
Sandage, B.W., Sabounjian, L.A., Wuronene, R.I. 1996. “Effects of Choline on Athletic Performance and Fatigue.” Abstract from National Institutes of Health Workshop on The Role of Dietary Supplements for Physically Active People. June 3-4, 1996, Bethesda, MD.
Zeisel, S.H. 1994. “Choline: human requirements and effects on human performance.” In: Marriott, B.M. (Ed.). Food Components to Enhance Performance: An Evaluation of Potential Performance-Enhancing Food Components for Operational Rations. Committee on Military Nutrition Research, Food and Nutrition Board (FNB), Institute of Medicine (IOM). National Academy Press; Washington, DC, pp. 381-406.
* Structure-Function Claims submitted to US-FDA Office of Nutritional Products, Labeling and Dietary Supplements on 20 November 2001 and revised on 20 December 2001. Dietary supplement products containing choline are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.