General references on choline
Blusztajn JK. Choline, a vital amine. Science 1998;281:794-5.
Institute of Medicine. Choline. In: Food and Nutrition Board NAoS, editor. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin and Choline.Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 1998. p. 390-422.
Zeisel SH, daCosta KA. Choline: an essential nutrient for public health. Nutr Rev 2009;67(11):615-23.
Benefits of pre- and post-natal choline supplementation on cognitive development
Caudill MA. Pre- and post-natal health: Evidence of increased choline needs. J Am Diet Assoc 2010;110:1198-206.
Li Q, Guo-Ross S, Lewis DV, Turner D, White AM, Wilson WA et al. Dietary prenatal choline supplementation alters postnatal hippocampal structure and function. J Neurophysiol 2004;91:1545-55.
McCann JC, Hudes M, Ames BN. An overview of evidence for a causal relationship between dietary availability of choline during development and cognitive function in offspring. Neurosci Behav Rev 2006;30:696-712.
Meck WH, Smith RA, Williams CL. Pre- and postnatal choline supplementation produced long-term facilitation of spatial memory. Dev Psychobiol 1988;21:339-53.
Meck WH, Smith RA, Williams CL. Organizational changes in cholinergic activity and enhanced visuospatial memory as a function of choline administered prenatally or postnatally or both. Behav Neurosci 1989;103:1234-41.
Meck WH, Williams CL. Metabolic imprinting of choline by its availability during gestation: implications for memory and attentional processing across the lifespan. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2003;27:385-99.
Zeisel SH. Nutritional importance of choline for brain development. J Am Coll Nutr 2004;23(6(Suppl.)):621S-6S.
Zeisel SH. Fetal origins of memory: The role of choline in optimal brain development. J Pediatr 2006;149:S131-S136.
Choline’s role in cognitive function and mitigating age-related decline
Buchman AL, Sohel M, Brown M, Jenden DJ, Ahn C, Roch M et al. Verbal and visual memory improve after choline supplementation in long-term parenteral nutrition. JPEN 2001;25(1):30-5.
Blusztajn JK, Wurtman RJ. Choline and cholinergic neurons. Science 1983;221:614-20.
Cohen BM, Renshaw PF, Stoll AL, Wurtman RJ, Yergelun-Todd D, Babb SM. Decreased brain choline uptake in older adults: An in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study. JAMA 1995;274(11):2902-7.
Sitaram N, Weingartner H, Caine ED, Gillin JC. Choline: Selective enhancement of serial learning and encoding of low imagery words in man. Life Sci 1978;22(17):1555-60.
Wurtman RJ. Effects of dietary amino acids, carbohydrates and choline on neurotransmitter synthesis. Mt Sinai J Med 1988;55(1):75-86.
Zeisel SH. Choline: needed for normal development of memory. J Am Coll Nutr 2000;19(5):528S-31S.
Importance of choline in regulation of amino acid metabolism, particularly reduction of homocysteine
Cho E, Zeisel SH, Jacques PF, Selhub J, Dougherty L, Colditz GA. Dietary choline and betaine assessed by food-frequency questionnaire in relation to plasma total homocysteine concentration in the Framingham Offspring Study. Am J Clin Nutr 2006;83:905-11.
daCosta KA, Gaffney CM, Fischer LM, Zeisel SH. Choline deficiency in mice and humans is associated with increased plasma homocysteine concentration after a methionine load. Am J Clin Nutr 2005;81:440-4.
McCully KS. Homocysteine and vascular disease: The role of folate, choline and lipoproteins in homocysteine metabolism. In: Zeisel SH, Szuhaj BF, editors. Choline, Phospholipids, Health and Disease.Champaign, IL: AOCS Press; 1998. p. 117-30.
Verhoef P, de Groot LCPGM. Dietary determinants of plasma homocysteine concentrations. Seminars in Vascular Medicine 2005;5(2):110-23.
Choline’s necessity for liver function and lipid metabolism
Buchman AL, Ament ME, Sohel M, Dubin MD, Jenden DJ, Roch M et al. Choline deficiency causes reversible hepatic abnormalities in patients receiving parenteral nutrition: Proof of a human choline requirement: A placebo-controlled trial. JPEN 2001;25(5):260-8.
Ghoshal AK, Farber E. Biology of disease: Choline deficiency, lipotrope deficiency and the development of liver disease including liver cancer: A new perspective. Lab Investig 1993;68(3):255-60.
Tayek JA, Bistrian BR. Abnormal liver function in malnourished patients receiving total parenteral nutrition: A prospective randomized study. J Am Coll Nutr 1990;9(1):76-83.
Choline supplementation for athletic consumers
Buchman AL, Jenden DJ, Roch M. Plasma free, phospholipid-bound and urinary free choline all decrease during a marathon run and may be associated with impaired performance. J Am Coll Nutr 1999;18(6):598-601.
Conlay LA, Wurtman RJ, Blusztajn JK, Lopez-Coviella I, Maher TJ, Evoniuk GE. Decreased plasma choline concentrations in marathon runners. NEJM 1986 October 2;315:892.
Sandage, BW, Sabounjian, LA, Wuronen, RI. 1996. “Effects of Choline on Athletic Performance and Fatigue.” Abstract from National Institutes of Health Workshop on The Role of Dietary Supplements for Physically Active People. June 3-4, 1996, Bethesda, MD.
Zeisel SH. Choline: human requirements and effects on human performance. In: Marriott BM, editor. Food Components to Enhance Performance: An Evaluation of Potential Performance-Enhancing Food Components for Operational Rations.Washington, D.C.: Committee on Military Nutrition Research, Food and Nutrition Board (FNB), Institute of Medicine (IOM) - National Academy Press; 1994. p. 381-406.